General information about Turkey
Turkey , the modern and developed country , with its history and ancient civilization , which is located in the middle of the world and is divided widely on the continents of Asia and Europe , and combines the originality of the East and the modernity of the West .
Officially known as the " Republic of Turkey " , Turkey is a country located between the continents of Asia and Europe , overlooking the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea , the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea . Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Kemal Ataturk , the father of Turkey , after the great fall of the Ottoman Empire . Turkey celebrates its Independence Day on October 29 each year .
Borders of Turkey :
Turkey is located in the Middle East . Turkey is bordered to the east by Azerbaijan and Iran , to the southeast by Iraq and Syria , to the north by the Black Sea , to the northeast by Georgia and Armenia , to the southwest and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea , and from the northwest the state of Greece and Bulgaria . So Turkey has borders with two Arab states , Syria and Iraq .
Turkey's land area :
Turkey has a total area of 783.562 square kilometers , of which 769.632 square kilometers are land and 13.930 square kilometers of water , so it is the richest country in the Middle East with water sources . Turkey is the 37th largest country in the world in terms of land area . Konya is Turkey's largest city by area . According to 2011 estimates , Turkish lands are divided into agricultural lands by 49.7% , which includes arable land by 26.7% , land suitable for permanent grazing by 19% , and permanent cropland by 4% , and forests with 14.9% . Other land uses amounted to 35.4% .
Population of Turkey :
The current population of Turkey is 82.431.228 people , as of December 12 , 2018 , based on the latest estimates of the United Nations , equivalent to 1.07% of the total world population , and the proportion of Turks in the population distribution approximately 80% , with the majority of the population of the religion of Islam , and ranks No. 19 in the list of countries by population , with a population density of 106 people per square kilometer . Turkish is the only official language in Turkey , spoken by 70% to 75% of the population of the Republic of Turkey , and there are many other languages such as Arabic , Kurdish , Bosnian and Circassian . Istanbul is the largest Turkish city in terms of population , where the number of Istanbul's population is between 14 and 18 million people .
Climate of Turkey :
Turkey's climate is characterized by its diversity , due to its large area and the diversity of nature and topography of Turkish cities , but in general the climate of Turkey is hot dry in summer and cold wet in winter . It is known that summer , especially July and August , is the driest months in Turkey , but the cities and coastal areas of Turkey overlooking the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea have a temperate Mediterranean climate , with hot and dry summers and mild winters to cold and damp . The coastal areas of Turkey overlooking the Black Sea are characterized by a warm ocean climate , humid in summer and cold and humid in winter . The largest amount of rain falls on the Turkish coast from the Black Sea , which is the only region in Turkey with high rainfall . The coastal areas of Turkey overlooking the Sea of Marmara , which connects the Aegean Sea to the Black Sea , including Istanbul city , have a transitional climate between the Mediterranean climate and the oceanic climate , and hot and dry summers and cold and moderate winters to cool and humid .
As for snow , no snow falls annually in the winter on the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea . On the other hand , it is rare that snow falls in the coastal areas of the Aegean , and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean .
Tourism in Turkey :
Turkey is the magic , the beauty , the rich nature and the great civilization . Turkey is one of the richest countries in the world culturally , historically and geographically in the world , making it ranks sixth among the best tourist destinations in the world , and has been able to attract millions of tourists to it ; based on statistics and figures for 2011 , has chosen nearly thirty-two million foreign tourists Turkey to be their tourist destination that year . Turkey has a wonderful climate all year round , and Turkey has many important landmarks such as the Bosphorus Bridge , Sultanahmet Mosque , Galata Tower , Taksim Square , Hagia Sophia and many places that are unique to other cities of the world .
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The most important cities of Turkey :
The Republic of Turkey is divided into 81 provinces , and Ankara is the capital of the country , and Istanbul is the financial capital and cultural and economic heart of the country , and the Republic of Turkey includes major and famous cities such as : Izmir , Antalya , Gaziantep , Diyarbakir , Konya , Bursa and others lots .
Ankara City :
The capital of Turkey is the city of Ankara , which is the second largest city of Turkey after the city of Istanbul , with a population of about 3.517.182 people , and Ankara is a major center of trade and industry in Turkey , where it is the focus of political and diplomatic activity of the State of Turkey . As for its geographical location , Ankara is located in the center of Turkey , and it is an inner city with no coastline .
The history of Ankara dates back to prehistoric times , and according to this great history witnessed in the city of Ankara , the city has a number of important historical attractions that attract tourists from all over the world , although tourism is not a major sector in the economy of Ankara , and It doesn't depend heavily on it .
The most prominent tourist attractions :
- Ankara Castle : It is the oldest castles in Ankara , dating back more than 3000 years .
- Kocatepe Mosque : It is the largest mosque in Ankara , and follows the Ottoman design style , and has four large minarets .
- Ataturk Mausoleum : A large museum that houses the tomb of Kemal Ataturk , along with a number of its personal belongings , the entire area of the museum 750.000 square meters .
- The Roman bathhouse : It is one of the monuments to the Roman state that was built on the land of the city . The bathhouse dates back to the 3rd century , built by the Roman Emperor Caracalla , and includes hot and cold water rooms , private training areas and a wrestling ring .
Istanbul City :
Istanbul is the largest city on the continent of Europe , and the eighth largest city in the world , and the largest city in Turkey , with a population of 14.804.116 people , according to the statistics of 2019 . Istanbul is the economic , commercial and cultural center of the country , due to its strategic location between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea , as well as linking the Asian part of Turkey to the European section through the famous Bosphorus Bridge .
The city of Istanbul is characterized by a relatively mild climate , due to its location between the continents of Asia and Europe , and the summer of Istanbul is especially hot in July and August , the maximum temperature in Istanbul may reach 37 degrees Celsius , while winter is very cold , especially in January and February , winter rains fall on the city of Istanbul and snow covers most areas and the temperature reaches seven degrees below zero .
Istanbul is one of the most religiously diverse cities in Turkey . Islamic religion is the most prevalent religion among the population of Istanbul , followed by Christianity . Turkish is the official language in Istanbul . A number of other languages such as Arabic and English are supported .
The city of Istanbul is one of the most famous tourist cities in Turkey and in the world , where it is visited by tourists and visitors of different nationalities and religions , because of the nature of this beautiful city and its distinctive scenic and nice weather , in addition to being overlooking the charming Bosphorus Strait .
The most famous tourist attraction in the city of Istanbul :
- Hagia Sophia Museum : It is one of the most beautiful architectural monuments in Istanbul , this place combines sanctity and luxury , which was a Christian cathedral , and when the arrival of the Islamic conquest of Istanbul they converted it into a mosque , but after the end of Ottoman rule in Istanbul It became a historical museum . Hagia Sophia Museum and Mosque is located opposite Sultanahmet Mosque in Fatih area , on the European side of Istanbul , and it is one of the most important and oldest historical mosques in Istanbul .
- Bosphorus Bridge : The Bosphorus is the water body that divides the city of Istanbul into two parts , the section of Asia and the European section . The Bosphorus Bridge was built in 1973 to extend across the Bosphorus Strait , and it connects the two sections of Istanbul . One of the most important information about the Bosphorus Bridge is that it has a metal structure , and its length extends to 1.560 meters , while extending to 33.5 meters . In 2007 , a bridge lighting system was installed to illuminate at night , giving the city a charming view . About 180.000 vehicles pass through the Bosphorus Bridge every day , so it is a gateway to the city's trade and economy . One of the most interesting tourist activities in Istanbul is touring the Bosphorus via a ferry . You will not complete your visit to Istanbul without a tour in the Bosphorus and see Dolmabahce Palace and Rumelihisari in addition to many forests and beautiful greenery .
- Taksim Square : The famous Taksim Square , which is intended for Arab and foreign tourists from all over the world , where the number of visitors to this region nearly 3 million people on a daily basis . Taksim Square is located in the heart of Istanbul . Taksim Square is a major center for many activities . It is also a major tourist destination . It includes the famous Istiklal Street which contains many shops , archaeological buildings , libraries , banks , Cinema , cafes and various local and international restaurants , in addition to the presence of many embassies and consulates in this region , such as the US Consulate , the French Consulate , the Greek Consulate and the British Consulate . Also , there is a famous historical tramway on Istiklal Street , which has been in existence since 1875 , and was re-launched in 1990 to revive the historical atmosphere of the region , and this tramway take you from Taksim Square passing through Istiklal Street to Galata Tower , one of the most famous historical landmarks in Istanbul .
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Izmir City :
Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey .This city is located in western Turkey , especially on the shores of the Aegean Sea . It has a population of approximately 3.7 million people . Izmir is one of the most beautiful cities of Turkey . It is the capital of the Aegean region , and it is classified as an important commercial center in the region , and has the second largest Turkish ports after the famous port of Istanbul .
The city of Izmir has many historical and tourist attractions , as it contains many distinctive attractions , which made it one of the most important and most prominent tourist cities in Turkey .
Izmir is famous for popular attractions like :
- Konak Square in Izmir : Konak Square is the main square which is located in the center of Izmir in Turkey , and it is one of the most important tourist attractions in the city , and it is characterized by the presence of the famous Clock Tower , which was built in 1901 and it is one of the unique symbols in Izmir .
- Izmir Cable Car : Izmir Cable Car runs at the foothills of the Kufa Mountains , one of the most developed urban areas with many entertainment centers , hotels and water parks , where you can enjoy in the cable car with the most spectacular mountain views because it is located at an altitude of about 1000 meters . Also , it is overlooking the magnificent Izmir Bay , this cable car has a great design and high safety .
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Antalya City :
Antalya , the bride of the Turkish coast , is one of the most beautiful cities of Turkey . It is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the southwestern part of the State of Turkey , so it is located on the coastal slopes and surrounded by mountains on all sides , and the population of Antalya about 775.157 people . Antalya is known as a center for development and investment and it is one of the most popular destinations for foreign tourists from all over the world , especially Europeans and Russians .
One of the most important tourist activities in the Turkish city of Antalya visit its beautiful waterfalls , which flow from the top of the mountains to impress tourists with its magnificence and beauty . Each waterfall in Antalya has its own charm that distinguishes it from the rest of the waterfalls , including : Duden Waterfalls , where the waterfall comes within a beautiful park that includes a number of restaurants and cafes and meet the waterfall with the sea in a scene that will fascinate you , and Kursunlu Falls , which is the second most beautiful waterfalls in Antalya , located in the middle of a picturesque pine forest , Kursunlu Falls are a great hiking destination , dominated by the tranquil atmosphere and breathtaking views of the waterfalls flowing into Oksu River , in addition to the charming nature that includes unique trees and plants such as willow , figs and wild olives .
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Bursa City :
Bursa city is located in the northwestern part of Turkey . It is the fourth most populous city in Turkey . It is considered as one of the best and most active Turkish cities in the industry field . It is located between Ankara , the capital of Turkey , and the beautiful city of Istanbul . Bursa Green is one of the most famous names of the city , due to its green nature , surrounded by forests and various gardens , and there are parks , gardens, and a ski resort called ( Uludag ) , and Bursa city is a historic and archaeological area , which includes a number of buildings and shrines that date back to the Ottoman era .
Bursa is known as one of the most important agricultural areas in Turkey . It occupies the first place in the silk industry, where it is famous for silkworm breeding , mulberry tree cultivation , and it is characterized by the automotive, textile and dairy industries .
Also , Bursa is a tourist city where tourists visit all year round , due to its cool and nice weather and beautiful nature . One of the most prominent sights in Bursa Mountain Uludag , where competitions and activities such as the World Olympic Skiing competitions are held . The Green Mosque in Bursa is one of the most beautiful mosques in the region . It contains beautiful models of writings decorated with wonderful Arabic calligraphy .
Economy of Turkey :
Turkey's economy is characterized by its rapid growth and development , in the twenties of the last century , Turkey was only a fully agricultural country , but now it is one of the most important industrial countries , and it exports its products to all over the world . Turkish industry and trade centers are concentrated around the city of Istanbul and other major cities . The industrial , commercial , agricultural , tourism , real estate and educational sector thrive in Turkey , and the country has become self-sufficient and less imported from abroad .
Turkey also unveiled a new export plan targeting 17 countries around the world , in five sectors , namely machinery , automobiles , electrical electronics , chemical and food industries .
The 17 countries targeted in the export plan are the United States , Brazil , China , Ethiopia , Morocco , South Africa , South Korea , India , Iraq , Britain , Japan , Kenya , Malaysia , Mexico , Uzbekistan , Russia and Chile .